Napalm is an incendiary mixture of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical usually gasoline petrol or diesel fuel. The title is a portmanteau of the names of two of the constituents of the original thickening and gelling agents: co-precipitated aluminium salts of naphthenic acid and palmitic acid. Napalm burns at the same temperature as gasoline, and for a greater duration, as well as being more easily dispersed and sticking tenaciously to its targets; these traits make it extremely effective and controversial in the anti-structure and antipersonnel role.
It has been widely used in both the air and ground role, with the largest used to date being via air-dropped bombs in World War II most notably in the devastating incendiary attacks on Japanese cities inand later close air support roles in Korea and Vietnam.
Napalm also has fueled most of the flamethrowers tank, ship and infantry-based used since World War II, giving them Zwischenspiel Fuck - Napalm - Napalm 5 greater range, and was used in this role as a common weapon of urban combat by both the Axis and the Allies in World War II.
Multiple nations including the United StatesChinaRussiaIran Lilly And Poppy (Original Vinyl Dub) - Omid 16B* - Paralexia North Korea maintain large stockpiles of napalm-based weapons of various types. Napalm was Zwischenspiel Fuck - Napalm - Napalm 5 in flamethrowersbombs and tanks in World War II.
It is believed to have been formulated to burn at a specific rate and to adhere to surfaces to increase its stopping power. During combustionnapalm rapidly deoxygenates the available air and generates large amounts of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Alternative compositions exist for different uses, e. Use of fire in warfare has a long history. The development of napalm was precipitated by the use of jellied gasoline mixtures by the Allied forces during World War II. This shortage of natural rubber prompted chemists at US companies such as DuPont and Standard Oiland researchers at Harvard Universityto develop factory-made alternatives— artificial rubber for all uses, including vehicle tires, tank tracks, gaskets, hoses, medical supplies and rain clothing.
A team of chemists led by Louis Fieser at Harvard University was the first to develop synthetic napalm, during On 4 Julythe first test occurred on the football field near the Harvard Business School. The management of the company decided that its "first obligation was the government.
Napalm was first employed in incendiary bombs and went on to be used as fuel for flamethrowers. VIs of No. Tomos Stephens, taking part in Operation Bulbasketand seven local Resistance fighters. Further use of napalm by American forces occurred in the Pacific theater of operations, where in andnapalm was used as a tactical weapon against Japanese bunkers, pillboxes, tunnels, and other fortifications, especially on SaipanIwo Jimathe Philippinesand Okinawawhere deeply dug-in Japanese troops refused to surrender.
Napalm bombs were dropped by aviators of the U. Marine Corps in support of ground troops. Then, when the U. Army Air Forces on the Marianas Islands ran out of conventional thermite incendiary bombs for their B Superfortresses to drop on Japanese cities, its top commanders, such as General Curtis LeMayused napalm bombs to continue fire raids on the large Japanese cities.
In the European Theater of Operations napalm was used by American forces  in the siege of La Rochelle in April against German soldiers and Zwischenspiel Fuck - Napalm - Napalm 5 French civilians in Royan — about two weeks before the end of the war.
Napalm was also widely used by the United States during the Korean War. Air Force and Navy aviators had control of the air over nearly all of the Korean Peninsula. Hence, close air support of the ground troops along the border between North S.
K. J. - Milt Jackson and Wes Montgomery - Bags Meets Wes! and South Korea was vital, and the American and other U. Napalm was used most notably during the battle " Outpost Harry " in South Korea during the night of June 10—11, The American official who took this statement declined to publicize it. Napalm became an intrinsic element of U.
Air Force and U. Navy Fix You - Gregorian - Best Of 1990 - 2010 napalm with great effect against all kinds of targets, such as troops, tanks, buildings, jungles, and even railroad tunnels.
The effect was not always purely physical as napalm had psychological effects on the enemy as well. A variant of napalm was produced in Rhodesia for a type of ordnance known as Frantan between and and was deployed extensively by the Rhodesian Air Force during that country's Zwischenspiel Fuck - Napalm - Napalm 5 war. When used as a part of an incendiary weaponnapalm can cause severe burns ranging from superficial to subdermalasphyxiationunconsciousnessand death.
Napalm is effective against dug-in enemy personnel. The burning incendiary composition flows into foxholestrenches and bunkersand drainage and irrigation ditches and other improvised troop shelters. Even people in undamaged shelters can be killed by hyperthermiaradiant heatdehydrationasphyxiationsmoke exposure, or carbon monoxide poisoning.
International law does not specifically prohibit the use of napalm or other incendiaries against military targets,  but use against civilian populations was banned by the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons CCW in According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Spain - The Patt Holt Singers - Changing Keys SIPRIcountries are considered a party to the convention, which entered into force as international law in Decemberas long as they ratify at least two of the five protocols.
Approximately 25 years after the General Zwischenspiel Fuck - Napalm - Napalm 5 adopted it, the United Zwischenspiel Fuck - Napalm - Napalm 5 signed it on January 21,President Barack Zwischenspiel Fuck - Napalm - Napalm 5 's first full day in office.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about flammable liquids used for flame-type weaponry. For other uses, see Napalm disambiguation. Early thermal weapons Flame fougasse German Village Dugway proving ground Greek firean ancient flamethrowing weapon that may have resembled napalm Japanese Village M Incendiary cluster bomb Mark 77 bomb Molotov cocktail Phan Thi Kim Phuca Vietnamese child injured by a napalm attack Triethylaluminium White phosphorus munitions.
Retrieved 2 October Neer Harvard University Press pp". A History of Bombing. New York: The New Press. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 26 Oct Wisconsin State Journal. Madison, WI: John Humenik. Retrieved on Barnsley, S. Yorks: Pen and Sword Books.
Seven Stories Press. A Military History of the Cold War, — University of Oklahoma Press. Napalm: An American Biography. Harvard University Press. Korea: Where the American Century Began. Hardie Grant Books. The Vietnam War. Retrieved Nikola Budanovic. Retrieved 8 November London: The Anti-Apartheid Movement. New York: Zebra Press. University of Connecticut Advance. Napalm, An American Biography. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Webarchive template wayback Zwischenspiel Fuck - Napalm - Napalm 5 Articles with French-language external links All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from January Namespaces Article Talk.
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