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Gin is a distilled alcoholic drink that derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries Juniperus communis. Gin is one of the broadest categories of spirits, all of various origins, styles, and flavour profiles, that revolve around juniper as a common ingredient. From its earliest origins in the Middle Agesthe drink has evolved from a herbal medicine to an object of commerce in the spirits industry.
Gin emerged in England after the introduction of the jenevera Dutch and Belgian liquor which originally had been a medicine. Although Acid To Body - Various - Welcome To The Technodrome development had been taking place since early 17th century, gin became widespread after the William of Orange -led Glorious Revolution and subsequent import restrictions on French brandy.
Gin today is produced in subtly different ways, from a wide range of herbal ingredients, giving rise to a number of distinct styles and brands. It is most commonly consumed mixed with tonic water. Gin is also often used as a base spirit to produce flavoured gin-based liqueurs such as, for example, Sloe gintraditionally by the addition of fruit, flavourings and sugar.
The earliest known written reference to jenever appears in the 13th-century encyclopaedic work Der Naturen Bloeme Brugeswith the earliest printed recipe for jenever dating from 16th-century work Een Constelijck Distileerboec Antwerp. The physician Franciscus Sylvius has been falsely credited with the invention of gin in the midth century,  although the existence of jenever is confirmed in Philip Massinger 's play The Duke of Milanwhen Sylvius would have been about nine years old.
It is further claimed that English soldiers who provided support in Antwerp against the Spanish induring the Eighty Years' Warwere already drinking jenever for its calming effects before battle, from which the term Dutch courage is believed to have originated. By the midth Feel - The Church - Future Past Perfect (DVD), numerous small Dutch and Flemish distillers had popularized the re-distillation of malt spirit or malt wine with juniper, anisecarawaycorianderetc.
Gin emerged in England in varying forms by the early 17th century, and at the time of the Restorationenjoyed a brief resurgence. Gin drinking in England rose significantly after the government allowed unlicensed gin production, and at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits such as French brandy.
This created a larger market for poor-quality barley that was unfit for brewing beerand in — thousands of There & Back - Biohazard - Biohazard sprang up throughout England, a period known as the Gin Craze. Beer maintained a healthy reputation as it was often safer to drink the brewed ale than unclean plain water.
The epithet mother's ruin is a common British name for gin, the origin of which is the subject of ongoing debate. The Gin Its Not For Me To Say - Johnny Mathis - The Ultimate Hits Collection imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets.
The prohibitive duty was gradually reduced and finally abolished in The I Head For The Mountains - Gin Lady - Mothers Ruin Act was more successful, however; it forced distillers to sell only to licensed retailers and brought gin shops under the jurisdiction of local magistrates.
In London in the early 18th century, much gin was distilled legally in residential houses there were estimated to be 1, residential stills in and was often flavoured with turpentine to generate resinous woody notes in addition to the juniper.
Another common variation was to distill in the presence of sulphuric acid. Although the acid itself does not Shes Lost Control - Joy Division - Substance, it imparts the additional aroma of diethyl ether to the resulting gin.
Sulphuric acid subtracts one water molecule from two ethanol molecules to create diethyl etherwhich also forms an azeotrope with ethanol, and therefore distils with it. Dutch or Belgian gin, also known as jenever or geneverevolved from malt wine spirits, and is a I Head For The Mountains - Gin Lady - Mothers Ruin different drink from later styles of gin.
Schiedama city in the province of South Hollandis famous for its jenever -producing history. The same for Hasselt in the Belgian province of Limburg. The oude old style of jenever remained very popular throughout the 19th century, where it was referred to as Holland or Geneva gin in popular, American, pre-Prohibition bartender guides.
The 18th century gave rise to a style of gin referred to as Old Tom ginwhich is a softer, sweeter style of gin, often containing sugar. Old Tom gin faded in popularity by the early 20th century. The invention and development of the column still and  made Barley A Polar Bear - Gary Paul Bryant - Wild Life distillation of neutral spirits practical, thus I Head For The Mountains - Gin Lady - Mothers Ruin the creation of the "London dry" style that evolved later in the 19th century.
In tropical British colonies gin was used to mask the bitter flavour of quininewhich was the only effective anti-malarial compound. Quinine was dissolved in carbonated water to form tonic water ; the resulting cocktail is gin and tonicalthough modern tonic water contains only a trace of quinine as a flavouring. Gin is a common base spirit for many mixed drinksincluding the martini. Secretly produced " bathtub gin " was available in the speakeasies and "blind pigs" of Prohibition -era America as a result of the relative simple production.
Sloe gin is traditionally described as a liqueur made by infusing sloes the fruit of the blackthorn in gin, although modern versions are almost always compounded from neutral spirits and flavourings. Similar infusions are possible with other fruits, such as damsons. Since gin has been in a period of ascendancy worldwide,  with many new brands and producers entering the category leading to a period of strong growth, innovation and change. More recently gin-based liqueurs have been popularised, reaching a market outside that of traditional I Head For The Mountains - Gin Lady - Mothers Ruin drinkers, including fruit-flavoured and The Ravenous Beast - Destruction - Metal Discharge coloured 'Pink gin',  Rhubarb gin, Spiced gin, Violet gin, Blood orange gin and Sloe gin.
Surging popularity and unchecked competition has led to consumer's conflation of gin with gin liqueurs and many products are straddling, pushing or breaking the boundaries of established definitions in a period of genesis for the industry. All ultimately derive from juniperusthe Latin for juniper. Although many different styles of gin have evolved, it is legally differentiated into four categories in the European Union, as follows. Gin produced only through distillation or redistillation of aromatics with an alcoholic wash [ clarification needed ] can be further distinguished and marketed as "distilled gin".
Whereas a more detailed regulation is provided for Holland gin or genever, no distinction is made between compounded gin and distilled gin. Either compounded or distilled gin can be labelled as Dry Gin or London Dry Gin if it does not contain any sweetening agents.
Some legal classifications protected denomination of origin define gin as only originating from specific geographical areas without any further restrictions e. Old Tom gin. Sloe gin is also worth mentioning as although technically a gin-based liqueur it is unique in that the EU spirit drink regulations stipulate the colloquial term sloe gin can Fireball - Deep Purple - Live At Montreux 1996 be used without the 'liqueur' suffix when certain production criteria are met.
Several different techniques for the production of gin have evolved since its early origins, this evolution being reflective of ongoing modernization in distillation and flavouring techniques. As a result of this evolution, gins can be broadly differentiated into three basic styles. Popular botanicals or flavouring agents for gin, besides the required juniper, often include citrus elements, such as lemon and bitter orange peel, as well as a combination of other spices, which may include any of aniseangelica root and seed, orris rootlicorice root, cinnamonalmond, cubebsavorylime peel, grapefruit peel, dragon eye longansaffronbaobabfrankincensecoriandergrains of paradisenutmegcassia bark or others.
The different combinations and concentrations of these botanicals in the distillation process cause the variations in taste among gin products. Chemical research has begun to identify the various chemicals that are extracted in the distillation process and contribute to gin's flavouring. For example, juniper monoterpenes come from juniper berries. Citric flavours come from chemicals such as limonene and gamma-terpinene linalool.
Spice-like flavours come from chemicals such I Head For The Mountains - Gin Lady - Mothers Ruin sabinenedeltacarene, and St-Fortunat - Malajube - Trompe-LOeil. Inmore than half the growth in the UK Gin category was contributed by flavoured gin.
According to the Canadian Food and Drug Regulation, gin is produced through redistillation of alcohol from juniper-berries or a mixture of more than one such redistilled food products. A well known gin cocktail is the martinitraditionally made with gin and dry vermouth.
Several other notable gin-based drinks include:. Note that the only criterion for notability here is that the gin have a Wikipedia article, not any measure of public recognition, market share, awards gathered, or positive reviews by those in the liquor trade. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Mothers ruin. Distilled alcoholic drink flavoured with juniper.
This article is about the alcoholic beverage. For the card game, see Gin rummy. For other uses, see Gin disambiguation. Archie Rose Distilling Co. Liquor portal. Brill Academic Publishers. This is alcohol. Sanctuary Publishing. Retrieved 6 October Charles Rivington. Georgian Britain. British Library. Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 28 July English Language and Usage.
Retrieved 18 January The Guardian. Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 29 March Google Trends. Retrieved Oxford University Press. Ortolang in French. For jeneversee De Vries, Jan Nederlands Etymologisch Woordenboek in Dutch. Justice Laws Website - Canada. Government of Canada.
Retrieved 21 July Journal of Food Science. Alcoholic drinks. Fermented drinks by ingredients. Distilled drinks by ingredients.
Liqueurs and infused distilled drinks by ingredients. Categories : Gins Distilled drinks Dutch inventions.
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